INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON HUMANISTIC IDEOLOGY
VOL. 1 NO. 2 AUTUMN-WINTER 2008
TOPICS: HISTORICISM AND MULTICULTURALISM
EDITORIAL: Mihaela GLIGOR, Historicism and Multiculturalism. The Problem, 7
Mac Linscott RICKETTS, Mircea Eliade and the Terror of History. Anti-Historicism and the History of Religions, 15
Abstract: This paper is a detailed examination of Mircea Eliade’s book, Cosmos and History, The Myth of the Eternal Return, presented together with the Journal notes he wrote while he was composing the volume. Using both published and unpublished parts of the Journal, I am able to show how the volume evolved and disclose some of the difficulties Eliade had to overcome in writing it.
Keywords: Historicism, traditional societies, archetypes, the myth of the eternal return, archaic man, modern man, Emmanuel Kant.
Alin FUMURESCU, Two Histories of Compromise, 37
Abstract: Since almost everybody agrees with the definition of politics as “the art of compromise” the general disregard of this concept is intriguing, to say the least. By tracing down the overlooked conceptual history of compromise, the essay signals for the first time the ignored difference between the usages of compromise on either side of the English Channel starting as early as the sixteenth century. It offers as possible explanation for such discrepancy a different apprehension of political representation between England and continental Europe, especially France – a difference with long-lasting consequences. I check this hypothesis by comparing and contrasting the theories of social contract in England and France respectively, pointing out how the forgotten work of Gilbert Burnet, a contemporary of John Locke, proves that in seventeenth century England the social contract came to be assimilated with a generalized compromise.
Keywords: compromise, representation, early modern Europe, Gilbert Burnet.
Maitrayee CHAUDHURI, Multiculturalism. The Story from an Indian Point of View, 67
Abstract: This paper foregrounds the historically specific Indian experience in engaging with “unity and diversity”. It further argues that “multiculturalism” was theorized in India but not within the accepted protocols and language of the modern, western academia. It primarily refers to two sets of debates, namely: the public discourse of India; and a more academic discourse in Indian sociology. Within the public discourse the gender question is privileged as it dramatically brings to the fore the contestations between competing discourses on rights of women versus rights of culture.
Keywords: unity and diversity, colonialism, international academic division of labor, gender, composite culture, secularism, democracy, recognition, redistribution
Sherry SABBARWAL, Whither Multiculturalism? A View from India, 91
Abstract: The practice of “multiculturalism” is a significant expression of a movement related to the politics of identity in many societies. It has been viewed differently by scholars and by the lay person at various points in time. At this crucial juncture of terrorist strikes in India, it is time to re-evaluate this phenomenon. Is multiculturalism a threat to the stability of a society or does it have a positive role to play in the integration of societies, is the question with which this article attempts to contend.
Keywords: Multiculturalism, Nativism, Integrationist pluralism, Cosmopolitan liberalism
Liviu ANTONESEI, Modernity and Modernization from an Intercultural Perspective, 97
Abstract: This study sees the European process of modernization through the values that gave it a structure, and taking into account the continuous force which they radiate. Two case studies were carried out in Japan and Romania, but they are examples of failed attempts at modernization – they represent the arguments of this paper. If the first country succeeded in its second attempt at modernization, this fact is due to the essential role of education. This is what is recommended also for the present modernizing attempt of Romania.
Keywords: Being modern, modernizing, liberal democracy, values, the values of modernizing, liberty, equality, fraternity, legality, education, intercultural education, acculturation, enculturation, educational aim.
Itai IVTZAN, Self Actualisation: For Individualistic Cultures Only?, 113
Abstract: Maslow’s concept of Self Actualisation refers to the greatest “need” in his motivational theory; the need to realize and fulfill one’s potential. Research has continually highlighted the differences between cultures using the individualistic-collectivistic dimension, but these differences have not been extended to the characteristics that define self actualisation.
The current study aims to test the cultural validity of Self Actualisation by using the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) questionnaire as a comprehensive measure of the self actualising characteristics originally highlighted by Maslow. The POI questionnaire was tested on 100 British participants as representing individuals from an individualistic culture, and 100 Indian participants as representing individuals from a collectivistic culture. The POI measured responses on 12 scales, each representing key characteristics of the Self Actualising individual. In support of the hypothesis, the results showed British participants scored significantly higher than the Indian participants on 10 out of the 12 scales. Thus, contrary to the belief that the basic concept of Self Actualisation applies to any human being in any culture, the current findings suggest that the characteristics of Self Actualisation, as defined by Maslow and the POI, cannot be effectively applied to collectivistic cultures in the same way they can in individualistic cultures. Implications include important impact on the workplace, as this concept of Self Actualisation has been integrated into management techniques used by human resources teams, motivating employees and encouraging them to develop self actualising values.
Keywords: Self-Actualisation, cultural differences, Abraham Malow.
Răzvan TATU, Ex Oriente Lux? Georgius of Hungaria and his Treaty on the Beliefs and Customs of the Turks. Notes on an Apocalyptic Perception of the Other, 141
Abstract: Inter-religious dialogue remains an issue of major importance today. This fact is proved by the many conferences and meetings in which diverse religious and political leaders take part. The central idea of the present article is to show the importance of Georgius of Hungaria’s Tractatus de moribus, condictionibus et nequicia Turcorum, an opus first published in 1481. The author gives a vivid example of the fact that we must recognize the other in our life. The other is our fellow human being, irrespective of color, faith, doctrine, and gender. Although there is an apologetic spirit in this treatise, as well as in the works of Saint John of Damascus and Saint Gregory Palamas, with regard to the Muslim faith, their basic idea is that we have to find a certain communion and feeling with people of other creeds or religious views. The experience of communion is the outstanding feature for the human being. The end-point or the eschaton is the one toward which all of us are called. The light of this end and the light of communion seem to come from the East, still a cradle of civilization, and the visions offered by these three authors mentioned above could provide us with a premise for the ideology of alterity.
Keywords: Inter-religious dialogue, other, Muslim, Christians, apologetic spirit, experience of communion.
Santosh Kr. SINGH: Rudolph C. Heredia, Changing Gods: Rethinking Conversion in India, Penguin Books, 2007, ISBN: 0143101900.
Mac Linscott RICKETTS: Sheila Greene Davaney, Historicism: The Once and Future Challenge to Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8006-3219-2.
Santosh Kr. SINGH: Patterns of Middle-Class Consumption in India and China, Edited by Christopher Jaffrelot and Peter Van der Veer, Sage, New Delhi, 2008, ISBN: 9780761936237.